The answer is "d." In terms of years-of-life gained versus lost, the numbers are approximately 20:1 in favor of biking,[i] as computed by Mayer Hillman, senior fellow emeritus of the Policy Studies Institute. Hillman's estimate was for Britain (supposedly, a more dangerous country for cycling) and includes benefits not only to cyclists, but to pedestrians who don't get run over, to elderly who aren't harmed by pollution, etc.
It seems that no matter how you look at it, cycling is a good bet for extending life and reducing needless fatalities across society.
[i]. British Medical Association, Cycling: Towards Health and Safety, Oxford University Press, 1992